Ankündigung

Einklappen
Keine Ankündigung bisher.

STS-1 - 25 Jahre Space Shuttle!

Einklappen
X
  • Filter
  • Zeit
  • Anzeigen
Alles löschen
neue Beiträge

  • STS-1 - 25 Jahre Space Shuttle!



    Der 12. April 1981!

    Der erste Flug des Space Shuttles Columbia OV-102

    Erste Erprobung der Systeme beim Start, im Erdorbit und bei der Landung




    KSC-81PC-0382 (04/12/1981)
    After six years of silence, the thunder of manned space flight is heard
    again, as the successful launch of the first Space Shuttle ushers in a new
    concept in utilization of space.


    KSC-79PC-0271 (04/29/1979)
    STS-1 Official Crew Portrait – Astronauts John W. Young,
    left, Crew Commander, and Robert L. Crippen, Pilot.

    KSC-79PC-0242 (03/10/1979)
    This is the official insignia for the first Space Shuttle
    orbital flight test (STS-1).


    Vor 25 Jahren, am 12. April 1981, startete mit der Columbia (OV-102 - Orbiter Vehicle 102) das erste US-Space Shuttle in den Weltraum. Die Mission STS-1, die Abkürzung STS steht für Space Transportation System, war die erste mit einem zumindest teilweise wiederverwendbaren Raumfahrzeug. Neu war auch, dass das Space Shuttle zwar wie eine Rakete senkrecht startete, aber wie ein Flugzeug auf einer Landebahn zur Erde zurückkehrte. Man erhoffte sich mit diesem neuen System große Kostenersparnisse und eine hohe Startfrequenz. Bei den bisherigen Raketen wurde der größte Teil des Startfahrzeuges bei einem Start verbraucht, mit der Kapsel kehrte immer nur ein kleiner Teil zurück, und dieser war auch nur einmal verwendbar.

    Bei der Mission STS-1 sollten alle Systeme vom Start über die Bedienung und Funktion im Weltraum bis zur sicheren und gefahrlosen Landung erprobt und auf ihre Einsatzfähigkeit für zukünftige Missionen überprüft und freigegeben werden. Als einzige Nutzlast war eine Plattform (DFI - Development Flight Instrumentation) an Bord der Columbia, welche aus verschiedenen Sensoren und Messgeräten bestand, die alle Parameter des Orbiters vom Start bis zur Landung aufzeichneten.

    Ein erster Startversuch am 10. April musste verschoben werden, als eine Zeitdiskrepanz zwischen den Bordcomputern des Orbiters festgestellt wurde: Die Backup-Software konnte sich nicht mit dem Hauptcomputer synchronisieren. Am 12. April verlief der Countdown dagegen ohne weitere Probleme und um 7 Uhr Ortszeit startete das erste Space Shuttle in eine Erdumlaufbahn. Der Start erfolgte von der Startrampe 39A, wie auch alle 23 darauf folgenden (STS-1 bis 61-C).

    Bei diesem Flug konnten alle wichtigen Systeme des Raumtransporters erfolgreich getestet werden. Beim Start und infolge der Überdruckwelle, die von den Feststofftriebwerken erzeugt wurden, erlitt der Orbiter allerdings Beschädigungen an den Hitzeschilden. Mit später durchgeführten Modifikationen in Form eines Wasser-Schallunterdrückungssystems konnte das Problem jedoch gelöst werden. Auch die Hitzeschutzkacheln bestanden weitgehend ihre Feuertaufe: 16 gingen verloren und 148 wurden beschädigt.

    Die Landung erfolgte 2 Tage später beim 37. Erdumlauf am 14. April 1981. Nach einer Ausrollzeit von 60 Sekunden über eine Strecke von 2.741 Metern endete die Mission auf der Piste 23 der Edwards Luftwaffenbasis in Kalifornien. Am 28. April kehrte der Orbiter in das Kennedy Space Center zurück.


    Heute, 25 Jahre später, sind die Space Shuttles immer noch im Einsatz. Es hatte auch zahlreiche Probleme gegeben und zwei Space Shuttles gingen auf tragische Weise verloren. Die Challenger ist 1986 mit 7 Astronauten an Bord knapp eine Minute nach dem Start explodiert und die Columbia verglühte im Februar 2003, ebenfalls mit 7 Astronauten an Bord, beim Wiedereintritt in die Erdatmosphäre.

    Drei Raumfähren stehen der NASA heute zur Verfügung: Discovery, Atlantis und Endeavour. Die Endeavour wurde nach dem Verlust der Challenger nachgebaut. Für die Fertigstellung der Internationalen Raumstation ISS sind die Space Shuttles auch weiterhin unverzichtbar. Mit der Discovery wurde im Juli 2005 mit der Mission "Return to Flight" auf Flug STS-114 der Flugbetrieb wieder aufgenommen. Der nächste Start der Discovery ist derzeit für den 1. Juli 2006 vorgesehen (STS-121). Die Atlantis soll frühestens wieder am 28. August zur ISS fliegen (STS-115).




    STS-1 Missionsdaten

    Startdatum: 12. April 1981, Kennedy Space Center (Pad 39-A)
    Startzeit: 7:00:03 EST (13:00:03 MEZ)
    Mannschaft: John W. Young (Kommandant), Robert L. Crippen (Pilot)
    Reservemannschaft: Joseph H. Engle (Kommandant), Richard H. Truly (Pilot)

    Nutzlast: POSA, DFI, ACIP
    Leergewicht im Orbit: 4.908 kg

    Erdumläufe: 37
    Flughöhe: 307,4 km
    Neigung: 40,3°
    Zurückgelegte Strecke: 1.729.343 km
    Missionsdauer: 2 Tage, 6 Stunden, 20 Minuten, 56 Sekunden
    Landung: 14. April 1981, Edwards Air Force Base, Kalifornien
    Landezeit: 10:20:57 PST (19:20:57 MEZ)




    STS-1 Video Gallery


    KSC-02V-0283
    Launch of STS-1: In preparation for her maiden voyage and the first flight
    of the Space Shuttle program, mission STS-1, Space Shuttle Columbia
    rolls out of the Vehicle Assembly Building and down the crawlerway
    toward the launch pad. Columbia and her two crew members, commander
    John Young and pilot Robert Crippen, launched on April 12, 1981 at 7:00
    a.m., beginning a new era in human spaceflight and in the history of
    Kennedy Space Center.


    KSC-03-S-00010
    A new and exciting era in space flight was born on April 12, 1981. The
    world watched as a spacecraft that looked like a plane roared out of the
    Earth’s atmosphere. NASA’s Space Transportation System, known as the
    Space Shuttle, became the world’s first re-useable spacecraft.


    STS-1 - 25th Anniversary with Young and Crippen
    Download (57,4 MB - 52:19 Min.)




    STS-1 Image Gallery I


    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Cape Canaveral

    For high resolution images: KSC Multimedia Gallery
    (Search for "STS-1", "Columbia" or the image number)




    March 31, 2006


    KSC-06PD-0569 (03/31/2006)

    KSC-06PD-0570 (03/31/2006)
    In tribute to the 25th anniversary of the first space shuttle flight, NASA's
    Kennedy Space Center has honored the crew of STS-1, Commander John
    Young and Pilot Robert Crippen, by dedicating the firing room that
    launched the historic flight as the "Young-Crippen Firing Room" (seen
    here). Making the dedication were (from left) the project flight engineer
    for Space Shuttle Columbia, Bob Sieck; the NASA test director for STS-1,
    Norm Carlson; and Center Director Jim Kennedy. Photo credit: NASA/Kim
    Shiflett



    KSC-06PD-0571 (03/31/2006)
    The door of firing room 1 in the Launch Control Center at NASA's Kennedy
    Space Center shows its new designation as the Young-Crippen Firing
    Room. The renaming was made in tribute to the 25th anniversary of the
    first space shuttle flight on April 12, 1981, dedicating the firing room that
    launched the historic flight and the crew of STS-1, Commander John
    Young and Pilot Robert Crippen. Making the dedication were Center
    Director Jim Kennedy; the NASA test director for STS-1, Norm Carlson;
    and the project flight engineer for Space Shuttle Columbia, Bob Sieck.
    Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett



    KSC-06PD-0572 (03/31/2006)
    Near the door of firing room 1 in the Launch Control Center at NASA's
    Kennedy Space Center is this plaque revealing the dedication of the room
    as the Young-Crippen Firing Room. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett



    *** Die STS-1 Bildergalerie wird bald fortgesetzt ***



    NASA TV
    Wikipedia: STS-1
    Zuletzt geändert von STS-Chris; 11.04.2006, 23:56.

  • #2
    STS-1

    COLUMBIA (1)
    Pad 39-A (13)
    1st Shuttle mission
    1st Flight OV-102

    Crew:

    John W. Young (5), Commander
    Robert L. Crippen (1), Pilot

    Backup Crew:

    Joseph H. Engle (0), Commander
    Richard H. Truly (0), Pilot

    Milestones:

    03/24/79 - Arrival from Dryden
    03/25/79 - Move to OPF-1 (610 days)
    11/24/80 - Move to VAB-3 (35 days)
    12/29/80 - Move to PAD-39A (105 days)
    02/20/81 - Flight Readiness Firing (FRF)
    04/12/81 - Launch
    04/14/81 - Landing
    04/28/81 - Return to KSC (14 days)





    STS-1 Image Gallery II


    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Cape Canaveral

    For high resolution images: KSC Multimedia Gallery
    (Search for "STS-1", "Columbia" or the image number)




    March 24, 1979


    KSC-79PC-0052 (03/24/1979)
    The Space Shuttle Columbia, piggy-back on its 747 carrier aircraft, is only
    seconds away from a touchdown at Kennedy Space Center’s Shuttle
    Landing Facility (SLF), completing its 2,400 mile ferry flight from Dryden
    Flight Research Center in California.



    March 29, 1979


    KSC-79PC-0272 (03/29/1979)
    Robert L. Crippen, Pilot for the STS-1 mission of the
    Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia.

    KSC-79PC-0273 (03/29/1979)
    John W. Young is the commander for the STS-1 mission of the
    Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia.



    October 1, 1980



    KSC-80PC-0527 (10/01/1980)
    Prime crew astronauts for the first space shuttle mission, Commander
    John Young and Pilot Robert Crippen, take a break from their intensive
    training schedule to pose for pictures in the flight deck of the orbiter
    Columbia. The Space Shuttle is controlled and most payloads are handled
    from the flight deck. Looking forward, the ship’s commander is seated on
    the left and the pilot on the right. Shown are the TV-like displays, and
    duplicate sets of conventional-looking hand controllers, pedals, levers and
    switches with which either astronaut can fly the craft alone. The two-man
    crew are wearing their ejection escape suits which will be worn only
    during the orbital flight test program and then only during the launch and
    landing phases of the mission.



    November 20, 1980


    KSC-80PC-0605 (11/20/1980)
    Assembly of the first Space Shuttle vehicle, scheduled to make its first
    orbital test flight in March 1981, was completed today with the mating of
    the Orbiter Columbia to its eternal tank in the Vehicle Assembly Building's
    High Bay 3. Columbia, shown here still attached to its hoisting sling, was
    moved to the VAB on Nov. 24 having completed tests and tile installation
    in the adjacent Orbiter Processing Facility. The other Shuttle components,
    the twin solid rocket boosters and the external propellant tank, were
    stacked on the Mobile launcher Platform in High Bay 3 in January and
    November of this year, respectively.



    December 29, 1980



    KSC-80PC-0720 (12/29/1980)
    The first Space Shuttle vehicle destined to fly in space inches out of the
    Vehicle Asembly Building on its way to Pad A at Complex 39, where it will
    be launched. The STS-1 vehicle – consisting of America's first reusable
    spaceship, Columbia, the external propellant tank and twin solid rocket
    boosters – was assembled on a Mobile Launcher Platform in the Vehicle
    Assembly Building. A six-million-pound tractor, called the
    Crawler-Transporter, is used to carry the Space Shuttle from the VAB to
    the launch pad, about 3.5 miles away.


    KSC-80PC-0641 (12/29/1980)

    KSC-80PC-0638 (12/29/1980)

    KSC-80PC-0639 (12/29/1980)

    KSC-80PC-0703 (12/29/1980)



    KSC-80PC-0722 (12/29/1980)
    The first Space Shuttle vehicle destined to fly in space moves toward
    Pad A at Complex 39, where it will be launched.


    KSC-80PC-0644 (12/29/1980)



    KSC-80PC-0704 (12/29/1980)


    KSC-80PC-0645 (12/29/1980)


    KSC-80PC-0743 (12/29/1980)
    The first Space Shuttle vehicle destined to fly in space arrives at its launch
    site, Pad A at Complex 39, following a 3.5-mile move from the Vehicle
    Assembly Building where the vehicle was assembled.



    December 30, 1980


    KSC-80PC-0709 (12/30/1980)
    The rollout of the STS-1 vehicle – consisting of America's first reusable
    spaceship, Columbia, the external propellant tank and twin solid rocket
    boosters – from the VAB to the launch pad is a major milestone in the
    series of events that will lead to its scheduled liftoff in March 1981.


    Quelle: NASA



    NASA TV
    Wikipedia: STS-1

    Kommentar


    • #3
      STS-1 Video Gallery


      STS-1 - 25th Anniversary with Young and Crippen

      In celebration of the 25th anniversary of STS-1, the space shuttle's first flight


      * STS-1 Mission Recap News Conference with Young and Crippen (21,6 MB - 19:44 Min.)

      * Young, Crippen, Thompson and Lunney talk with JSC employees, Part 1 (40,0 MB - 36:26 Min.)

      * Young, Crippen, Thompson and Lunney talk with JSC employees, Part 2 (29,6 MB - 27:03 Min.)

      * Live Special from Space Center Houston featuring Young and Crippen (64,1 MB - 58:22 Min.)

      * First time STS-1 (20,5 MB - 18:42 Min.)

      * Gallery STS-1 Mission (21,7 MB - 19:49 Min.)


      Expedition 13 message STS-1 Shuttle Anniversary

      Expedition 13 message STS-1 Shuttle Anniversary /
      Expedition 13 VIP Call from Russian President Vladimir Putin

      (13,0 MB - 11:55 Min.)





      STS-1 Image Gallery III


      KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Cape Canaveral

      For high resolution images: KSC Multimedia Gallery
      (Search for "STS-1", "Columbia" or the image number)




      January 6, 1981



      KSC-81PC-0013 (01/06/1981)
      Space Shuttle prime crew Commander John Young and Pilot Bob Crippen
      watch as backup crew members Richard Truly and Joe Engle board the
      emergency pad escape system known as the slidewire. The slidewire
      system provides a quick escape from upper launch pad platforms in case
      of a serious emergency. The flight crews wore the spacesuits and other
      equipment to be worn during a mission, but sandbags were used to
      duplicate the weight of riders in the slidewire baskeets during the training.


      KSC-81PC-0015 (01/06/1981)

      KSC-81PC-0016 (01/06/1981)

      KSC-81PC-0017 (01/06/1981)

      KSC-81PC-0022 (01/06/1981)

      KSC-81PC-0023 (01/06/1981)



      February 19, 1981


      KSC-81PC-0098 (02/19/1981)
      America's Space Shuttle stands poised on Launch Pad 39A, ready for
      Flight Readiness Firing of the main engines of the orbiter Columbia. The
      Rotating Service Structure has been retracted in this view, moving the
      "White Room" access to the Cargo Bay and other support facilities away
      from the exhaust damage zone.



      February 20, 1981



      KSC-81PC-0058 (02/20/1981)
      Flames shoot from the nozzles of Space Shuttle Columbia's three main
      engines during the successful 20-second static firing which capped a
      formal rehearsal for the maiden flight of Columbia, scheduled for early
      April. Remotely-operated cameras inside the pad perimeter snapped
      closeup views of the milestone event, which took place at 8:45 a.m. on
      February 20, 1981. The three main engines reach 100 percent power --
      over 1 million pounds of thrust -- during the test. Hold-down bolts secured
      the vehicle to its mobile launcher platform.


      KSC-81PC-0124 (02/20/1981)



      February 21, 1981



      KSC-81PC-0093 (02/21/1981)
      Looking like the perfect staging for a science fiction movie, STS-1 is a
      dramatic companion for the Moon "over its shoulder."



      March 5, 1981



      KSC-81PC-0136 (03/05/1981)
      Columbia sits on Launch Pad 39A before its maiden flight on STS-1. A
      timed exposure of the Space Shuttle, STS-1, at Launch Pad A, Complex
      39, turns the space vehicle and support facilities into a night-time fantasy
      of light. Structures to the left of the shuttle are the fixed and the rotating
      service structure.


      KSC-81PC-0137 (03/05/1981)

      KSC-81PC-0139 (03/05/1981)



      March 17, 1981


      KSC-81PC-0164 (03/17/1981)
      Vice President George F. Bush, center, flanked by astronauts Robert L.
      Crippen on his right and John W. Young on his left, receives a model of
      the Space Shuttle from Dr. Alan M. Lovelace, acting administrator of the
      National Aeronautics and Space Administration. At far right is Mrs. Bush,
      who accompanied the vice president on his whirlwind tour of the Shuttle
      vehicle and launch facilities. In the background are the aft portions of the
      orbiter, external tank and solid rocket boosters.



      March 19, 1981



      KSC-81PC-0186 (03/19/1981)
      Prime crew astronauts Bob Crippen (left) and John Young (right) discuss
      checklist items during suit-up in the Operations and Checkout Building
      iiror to departure for the launch pad during the final countdown rehearsal
      before launch of STS-1.


      KSC-81PC-0188 (03/19/1981)

      KSC-81PC-0190 (03/19/1981)


      Quelle: NASA



      NASA TV
      Wikipedia: STS-1

      Kommentar


      • #4
        STS-1 Image Gallery IV


        KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Cape Canaveral

        For high resolution images: KSC Multimedia Gallery
        (Search for "STS-1", "Columbia" or the image number)




        April 9, 1981



        KSC-81PC-0306 (04/09/1981)
        The Space Shuttle Columbia, (STS-1) stands poised for its maiden flight
        into space from Launch Pad A, Complex 39, following retraction of the
        Rotating Service Structure (RSS).


        KSC-81PC-0312 (04/09/1981)
        Space Shuttle prime crew members Robert Crippen, left, pilot, and John
        Young, center, commander, along with backup crewman Richard Truly,
        study forecasts of weather conditions for launch of the maiden flight of
        STS-1, America’s first reusable space transportation system.



        April 10, 1981


        KSC-81PC-0313 (04/10/1981)
        Technicians assist Columbia's prime crew astronauts John Young (right)
        and Bob Crippen (left) during suit-up operations in the crew quarters of
        the Operations and Checkout Building a few hours before the scheduled
        liftoff of the Space Shuttle on its maiden flight.

        KSC-81PC-0316 (04/10/1981)

        KSC-81PC-0333 (04/10/1981)
        Viewed from the top of the Vehicle Assembly Building, crowds wait in vain
        for the launch of the maiden flight of the Space Shuttle, “scrubbed” on
        April 10. Visible at center is the “V.I.P.” site, with waiting buses parked at
        lower right. Above are the NASA Complex 39 Press Site and viewing
        stands, and major news media facilities.



        April 11, 1981


        KSC-81PC-0388 (04/11/1981)
        Astronaut Robert Crippen, left, relaxed despite the "scrub" of the Space
        Shuttle launch on April 10, is joined at the Shuttle Landing Facility on April
        11 by (from left) George Abbey, flight operations director; Joseph
        Algrantic, chief of Aircraft OPERATIONS Division, both with Johnson Space
        Center; and astronaut Joe Engle. Crippen and Young spent part of the day
        between the "scrub" and the successful launch on April 12 in Shuttle
        landing practice, using a specially modified Grumman Airstream jet
        aircraft.



        April 12, 1981 - LAUNCH DAY!



        KSC-81PC-0346 (04/12/1981)
        Technicians assist prime crew astronauts John Young (right) and Bob
        Crippen (left) in suit-up operations in KSC's Operations and Checkout
        Building on the morning of Columbia's successful liftoff on the Space
        Shuttle's first orbital flight.


        KSC-81PC-0347 (04/12/1981)

        KSC-81PC-0349 (04/12/1981)
        Space flight-suited Astronauts John Young, left, and Robert Crippen,
        accompanied by George Abbey, at far left, flight operations director,
        Johnson Space Center, walk from the Operations and Checkout Building
        to the transport van that will take them to Launch Pad 39A, for the first
        launch of the Space Shuttle at 7 a.m., April 12. At the rear door of the van
        is Charles Buckley, head of the security office, KSC.

        KSC-81PC-0327 (04/12/1981)



        KSC-81PC-0416 (04/12/1981)
        Thousands of Space Center guests line the NASA Causeway awaiting the
        first launch of the Space Shuttle. The Vehicle Assembly Building where the
        orbiter is mated to the solid rocket boosters and the external tank, is
        visible in the distance.



        KSC-81PC-0382 (04/12/1981)
        After six years of silence, the thunder of manned space flight is heard
        again, as the successful launch of the first Space Shuttle ushers in a new
        concept in utilization of space.


        KSC-81PC-0362 (04/12/1981)

        KSC-81PC-0370 (04/12/1981)

        KSC-81PC-0372 (04/12/1981)

        KSC-81PC-0373 (04/12/1981)

        KSC-81PC-0371 (04/12/1981)

        KSC-81PC-0364 (04/12/1981)

        KSC-81PC-0352 (04/12/1981)

        KSC-81PC-0405 (04/12/1981)

        KSC-81PC-0413 (04/12/1981)
        Heavy, blast-proof steel louvers seal the large windows of the Launch
        Control Center’s firing room against mishaps that fail to occur when the
        first flight of the Space Shuttle is launched from Pad 39A 3.5 mile away.
        Launch staff, intently watching their computer readouts and TV monitors
        during the critical moments of launch, will cheer and wave miniature
        American flags when Astronauts John Young and Robert Crippen complete
        their fiery rocket ascent safely.



        KSC-81PC-0272 (04/12/1981)
        Separation of the Space Shuttle’s solid rocket boosters (SRB’s) occurs at
        two minutes, 11 seconds after launch from Pad A, Launch Complex 39.


        Quelle: NASA



        NASA TV
        Wikipedia: STS-1

        Kommentar


        • #5
          STS-1 Image Gallery V


          JOHNSON SPACE CENTER - Digital Image Collection



          April 12 - 14, 1981



          S-81-33179 (High Res)
          The Shuttle's Solid Rocket Boosters break away from Columbia's External
          Tank and fall to Earth about two minutes after liftoff. The boosters were
          collected and used in later missions.



          S81-30419
          Inflight activites of Young and Crippen in the cockpit and middeck areas during the STS-1 mission.
          Commander John W. Young mans the commander's station in the Columbia. A loose leaf notebook with
          flight activites data floats in the weightless environment



          S81-30420
          High Res
          Pilot Robert L. Crippen takes advantage of zero gravity to do some aerobics in the mid-deck area.


          S81-30421
          Young shaves his face in the mid-deck area. Food tray is mounted to the locker door at center.



          S81-30422
          Young cleans off his razor after shaving.



          S81-30423
          Crippen floats in zero gravity inside the orbiter. Clouds over the earth can be seen through the
          spacecraft's top viewing windows. Back side of the commander and pilot's seats can be seen at lower
          portion of the frame.


          STS001-06-481


          Quelle: NASA



          NASA TV
          Wikipedia: STS-1
          Zuletzt geändert von STS-Chris; 13.04.2006, 19:52.

          Kommentar


          • #6
            STS-1 Image Gallery VI


            JOHNSON SPACE CENTER - Digital Image Collection



            April 12 - 14, 1981



            STS001-06-497
            High Res
            Commander Young removes Crew Activity Plans (CAP) from Flight Data
            File (FD/FDF) modular stowage locker single tray assembly located in
            forward middeck locker MF28E. Window shade and filter kit on port side
            bulkhead and potable water tank on middeck floor appear in view. Photo
            was taken by Pilot Crippen with a 35mm camera.



            STS001-07-502
            High Res
            Pilot Crippen gathers food supplies - canned goods, sealed packages,
            beverages, etc - to prepare meal. Selections are attached with velcro to
            meal tray assemblies secured on forward middeck lockers MF14H and
            MF28H. Sitting on the potable water tank, Crippen handles food package
            (502). Also in view are the window shade and filter kit (on the port side
            bulkhead),the food warmer (on forward middeck lockers), and field
            sequential (FS) crewcabin camera with light fixture (freefloating).
            Commander Young took this photograph with a 35mm camera.


            STS001-07-540
            Commander Young reviews clipboard notes and procedures in forward
            flight deck commanders ejection seat (S1) wearing communication kit
            assembly (assy) headset (hdst) while hdst cable floats at his side. Soon
            after the launch phase of STS-1, crewmembers changed from their high
            altitude pressure garments into the light blue constant wear garment.
            Commanders Station control panels, rotational hand controller (RHC),
            crewman optical alignment sight (COAS), forward windows, window
            shade, and flight mirror assy appear in view.



            STS001-08-222
            A northern hemisphere tropical storm over open ocean - location
            unknown, can be seen forming by the loosly defined cyclonic spiral gyre
            within the cumulonimbus clouds. The storm can be readily identified as
            being in the northern hemisphere by the counter-clockwise rotation of the
            gyre. Because of the Earth's rotation induced coriolis effect, all northern
            hemisphere cyclonic circulations rotate in a counter-clockwise spiral and
            all those in the southern hemisphere rotate in a clockwise spiral.


            STS001-08-272
            A near vertical view of the Ramlat-as-Sabatayn region of Yemen (16.0N,
            47.5E) showing the long linear sand dunes, eroded volcanic mountains
            and dry watercourses typical in this region of central Yemen.


            STS001-08-277
            An oblique view of the island of Socotra (12.5N, 54.0E) off the Horn of
            Africa. The intersecting ocean and wind currents off the Somalian
            peninsula often produce unique displays of cloud and current patterns



            STS001-08-289
            View of the closed circuit television (CCTV) camera mounted on aft
            payload bay bulkhead on the starboard side of the space shuttle near the
            orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods.



            STS001-12-332
            Cargo bay and aft section of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia
            photographed through the flight deck's aft windows. In the lower right
            corner is one of the vehicle's radiator panels. Some of the thermal tiles
            are missing from the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods which flank
            the vertical stabilizer at left edge of the photograph. A collection of
            possible support equipment is housed in the box-like devices (lower left)
            known as the development flight instrument pallet. The pentagon-shaped
            glare at upper left is caused by window reflection.


            Quelle: NASA



            NASA TV
            Wikipedia: STS-1

            Kommentar


            • #7
              STS-1 Image Gallery VII


              DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH CENTER


              April 14, 1981 - LANDING DAY!

              EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, California



              ED06-0045-3 (04/14/1981)
              640x594 JPEG Image (226 KBytes)
              1280x1187 JPEG Image (754 KBytes)
              3000x2781 JPEG Image (3055 KBytes)
              Large crowds gathered on Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards AFB to see the
              first landing of the Space Shuttle Columbia, completing its first orbital
              mission.


              ED06-0045-2 (04/14/1981)
              640x598 JPEG Image (279 KBytes)
              1280x1195 JPEG Image (865 KBytes)
              3000x2801 JPEG Image (3427 KBytes)
              Large crowds gathered on Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards AFB to see the
              first landing of the Space Shuttle Columbia, completing its first orbital
              mission.


              Young: "Hello there, Houston? Columbia is here."

              Houston: "Hello, Columbia. Houston is here. How do you read?"

              Young: "We're doing Mach 10.3 at 180 A.S."

              Houston: "And we couldn't agree more, John. Your state vector is good. We've got good data in house."

              Young: "Okay."

              Young: "What a way to come to California."




              KSC-81PC-0429 (04/14/1981)
              Columbia returns to Earth. Completing the first full test of the Space
              Transportation System (STS-1), the orbiter Columbia is seen here on its
              final approach prior to landing on Rogers dry lake, Runway 23, at NASA's
              Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. For this first flight the
              Columbia was flown by astronauts John Young, commander, and Robert
              Crippen, pilot.



              KSC-81PC-0425 (04/14/1981)
              Orbiter Columbia "flares out" for a landing at Rogers dry lake Runway 23,
              successfully completing the historic first flight for the Space Shuttle.


              Houston:

              "50 feet ... 40 ... 30 ... 20 ... 10 ... 5 ... 4 ... 3 ... 2 ... 1 ...

              Touchdown! ...

              Heck of a job, Skipper! ..."




              EC81-15104 (04/14/1981)
              521x480 JPEG Image (72 KBytes)
              1112x1023 JPEG Image (359 KBytes)
              3000x2762 JPEG Image (3874 KBytes)
              TOUCHDOWN! -- The Space Shuttle Columbia touches down on lakebed
              runway 23 at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., to conclude the first orbital
              shuttle mission, April 14, 1981.


              Houston: "Welcome home, Columbia! Beautiful, beautiful!"

              Young: "Do you want us to take it up to the hangar, Joe?"

              Houston: "We're gonna dust it off first!"

              Young: "It's the world's greatest flying machine, I'll tell you that. It was super."




              ED06-0045-1 (04/14/1981)
              640x621 JPEG Image (204 KBytes)
              1280x1242 JPEG Image (653 KBytes)
              3000x2910 JPEG Image (2688 KBytes)


              Houston: "This is Mission Control, Houston. The unofficial

              touchdown time: 2 days, 6 hours, 20 minutes, 52 seconds. And as

              Columbia's main gear touched the lakebed the Flight Director's

              instructions were: 'Prepare for exhilaration.' "



              Quelle: NASA



              NASA TV
              Wikipedia: STS-1

              Kommentar


              • #8
                STS-1 Image Gallery VIII


                DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH CENTER


                April 14, 1981 - LANDING DAY!

                EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, California



                KSC-81PC-0426 (04/14/1981)
                Columbia returns to Earth after completing the first full test of the Space
                Transportation System (STS-1). The orbiter Columbia is seen here on the
                Rogers dry lake, Runway 23, at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center,
                Edwards, California. From this aerial view, the orbiter Columbia is seen as
                it is being convoyed to a parking area.



                ECN-14697 (04/14/1981)
                640x621 JPEG Image (255 KBytes)
                1280x1242 JPEG Image (1116 KBytes)
                3000x2910 JPEG Image (7321 KBytes)
                The Space Shuttle Columbia on Rogers Dry lakebed at Edwards AFB after
                landing to complete its first orbital mission on April 14, 1981. Technicians
                towed the Shuttle back to the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center for
                post-flight processing and preparation for a return ferry flight atop a
                modified 747 to Kennedy Space Center in Florida.


                ECN-14786 (04/14/1981)
                432x640 JPEG Image (170 KBytes)
                863x1280 JPEG Image (700 KBytes)
                2022x3000 JPEG Image (4046 KBytes)


                ECN-15022 (04/14/1981)
                640x621 JPEG Image (215 KBytes)
                1280x1242 JPEG Image (1059 KBytes)
                3000x2910 JPEG Image (6715 KBytes)



                S81-30852 (04/14/1981)
                Astronaut Robert L. Crippen egresses the Shuttle Columbia following
                touchdown at Edwards Air Force Base. Astronaut John W. Young can be
                seen standing at the foot of the steps with George W.S. Abbey, Director of
                Flight Operations at JSC. Dr. Craig L. Fischer, chief of the Medical
                Operations Branch at jSC follows Crippen down the steps.



                EC81-15177 (04/14/1981)
                521x480 JPEG Image (104 KBytes)
                1112x1023 JPEG Image (425 KBytes)
                3000x2762 JPEG Image (3878 KBytes)
                WELCOME HOME -- Space Shuttle astronauts John Young and Robert
                Crippen (in tan space suits) are greeted by members of the ground crew
                moments after stepping off the shuttle Columbia following its first landing
                at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. Young and Crippen had piloted the
                Columbia on its first orbital space mission, April 12 - 14, 1981.


                S81-30853 (04/14/1981)
                Young talks with Abbey enroute to the van at right which will take him and
                fellow crewmember Crippen to facilities at nearby Dryden Flight Research
                Center.



                ECN-14948 (04/1981)
                640x621 JPEG Image (321 KBytes)
                1280x1242 JPEG Image (1237 KBytes)
                3000x2910 JPEG Image (6871 KBytes)
                The Space Shuttle Columbia received post-flight servicing in the
                Mate-Demate Device (MDD), after its first landing at NASA's Dryden Flight
                Research Center, Edwards, California, April 14, 1981. The gantry-like
                MDD structure is used for servicing the shuttle orbiters in preparation for
                their ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, including
                mounting the shuttle atop NASAs modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier
                Aircraft.


                ECN-14962 (04/1981)
                640x621 JPEG Image (294 KBytes)
                1280x1242 JPEG Image (1175 KBytes)
                3000x2910 JPEG Image (6528 KBytes)
                The Space Shuttle Columbia can be seen in the post-flight processing
                facility known as the MDD (Mate-Demate Device) at NASA's Dryden Flight
                Research Center, CA, in this aerial view taken shortly after completing its
                first orbital mission with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base.


                ECN-15248 (04/1981)
                640x621 JPEG Image (266 KBytes)
                1280x1242 JPEG Image (1066 KBytes)
                3000x2910 JPEG Image (6314 KBytes)
                Actor Clint Eastwood and DFRC Center Director Ike Gillam pose near the
                Space Shuttle Columbia in the MDD (Mate-Demate Device)
                post-processing facility after Columbia had completed its first orbital flight
                with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base, CA., on April 14, 1981.




                TOUCHDOWN! Landing The First Shuttle Flight From Space

                The landing of the Space Shuttle Columbia on April 14, 1981, at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., capped what was perhaps the greatest test flight in history.

                That first space shuttle flight was a test flight designed to minimize the risks of flying such a novel spacecraft – the world's first reusable space vehicle. Three more test flights followed, becoming progressively more complex in order to develop and demonstrate the new spacecraft's mission and payload capabilities.

                On the 25th anniversary of the mission, known as STS-1, NASA Dryden's Space Shuttle Operations Support manager, Joe D'Agostino, who was chief of Dryden's management support branch at the time, remembers the 10:20 a.m. Pacific-time landing like it was yesterday.

                He remembers the masses of people from up and down the West Coast who had begun lining up at the gates of Edwards the day before the landing. Public interest in the flight of STS-1 was great; the launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center just two days prior had garnered wide coverage on TV, radio and print media, and interest continued as Columbia orbited the earth.

                A big campout began as NASA Dryden, Air Force and industry employee families arrived first, early in the day before the landing. Tents popped up everywhere. Campfires, bonfires, marsh mellows roasting, Bar-B-Qs toasting, the whole thing.

                "In addition to our employees and those of Rockwell, people of the Antelope Valley who saw shuttle Columbia towed down the streets of Lancaster on the way to Dryden for the ferry flight to Kennedy now came out to see it return from space," D'Agostino says. "It was a real personal thing."

                The big moment of truth for Air Force and NASA Dryden officials began in earnest when the Air Force opened the gates at midnight, allowing the general public to swarm into the vast desert air base, headed for an area set aside for public viewing of the anticipated history-making landing.

                Extensive planning and choreography had been accomplished, and now the fruit of many labors required for the multiplied thousands of guests would be tested. The big unknown for D'Agostino and the NASA security staff, as well as for the Air Force, was just how many public visitors to expect.

                By necessity, they had opened the east shore of Rogers Dry Lake, the shuttle's landing site, for the first time, raising the question of how to keep the viewing public safely away from the runways marked out on the lakebed proper. Campers and RVs arrived by the hundreds, growing into the thousands.

                "There has never been so many RVs in one place at one time," D'Agostino recalls.

                The crowds numbered well over 200,000 people, with some estimates as high as 300,000 visitors who thronged the lakebed viewing site.

                D'Agostino and many other NASA and Air Force employees did not sleep that night, as there was too much to be done. Adrenaline and excitement would have prevented it anyway.

                In addition to the public masses, media from around the country and around the world gathered amid the growing anticipation. Radio and TV trucks of all shapes and sizes rolled in from everywhere.

                Reporters, photographers, and videographers came to record the historic event.

                Most Dryden employees not directly supporting Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations were assigned to parking and crowd safety duties. D'Agostino and his staff, like everyone at Dryden, had to contend with these and other duties beyond primary assignments for the mission. Post-landing astronaut escort duties, photo and video support, and transportation required attention as well. There wasn't a down minute for days afterward.

                Dr. James Young, chief historian of the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards, was at one of the viewing sites and remembers the landing well.

                "I'll never forget it," he recalled. "My brother-in-law had recently been to the Super Bowl and told me 'it was a happening' when I asked what the experience was like. Well, the STS-1 landing was a happening!"

                "You just had to be there to hear, even feel, the double crack of the sonic boom," Young added. "It was such a tremendous sense of excitement to see something never seen before, to witness such an historic event."

                STS-1 was a great success as a test flight, especially considering that it was the first manned American spacecraft flown without a prior unmanned test flight. In addition, it marked the first time that solid fuel rockets were used for a U.S. manned launch. However, the spacecraft's first flight performance was above and beyond expectations.

                In fact, during a 25th anniversary presentation for employees at the Kennedy Space Center last week, STS-1 astronauts John Young and Robert Crippen recalled that their biggest surprise on that first test mission was that everything on Columbia worked as planned.

                "It was a lot of hard work, but those of us who worked STS-1 took great pride in seeing it return safely from space," D'Agostino said.

                The world watched as STS-1 opened a new era of spaceflight following the end of the Apollo and Skylab programs. The flight was not only a great triumph for NASA, it was also an event that enriched the adventurous spirit of Americans and people the world over.


                Quelle: NASA



                NASA TV
                Wikipedia: STS-1

                Kommentar


                • #9
                  STS-1 Video Gallery


                  STS-1 - Landing of Space Shuttle Columbia at Edwards


                  320x240 30-fps QuickTime Movie (4,081 KBytes)
                  320x240 30-fps MPEG-1 Movie (16,030 KBytes)


                  The first flight of a space shuttle into space and back occurred from April 12 to April 14, 1981. After years of testing of the space shuttle Columbia and training the astronauts in simulators, the orbiter lifted off into space on the 12th, boosted by the seven million pounds of thrust supplied by its solid-propellant rockets and liquid-hydrogen engines. The flight, one of four Orbital Flight Tests of Columbia, served as a two-day demonstration of the first reusable, piloted spacecraft's ability to go into orbit and return safely to Earth.

                  Columbia carried as its main payload a Developmental Flight Instrumentation pallet with instruments to record pressures, temperatures, and levels of acceleration at various points on the vehicle during launch, flight, and landing. One of many cameras aboard--a remote television camera--revealed some of the thermal protection tiles had disengaged during launch. As Columbia reentered the atmosphere from space at Mach 24 (24 times the speed of sound) after 36 orbits, aerodynamic heating built up to over 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, causing some concern during the time when the shuttle was out of radio communications with ground stations. But at 188,000 feet and Mach 10, mission commander John W. Young and pilot Robert L. Crippen reported that the orbiter was performing as expected. After a series of maneuvers to reduce speed, the mission commander and pilot prepared to land.

                  In flight, Young and Crippen tested the spacecraft's on-board systems, fired the orbital maneuvering system for changing orbits, employed the reaction control system for controlling attitude, and opened and closed the payload doors. Columbia was the first reusable, piloted spacecraft, the first piloted lifting-reentry vehicle, and the first piloted spacecraft without a crew escape system.

                  Energy management for the space shuttles was based on previous experience with the X-15 at NASA's Flight Research Center (which had become the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1976). Landing the shuttles without power, and therefore without the weight penalty of an additional engine and fuel, was based on previous experience at the Flight Research Center with piloted lifting bodies that also landed without power, as had the X-15s. Dryden and Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) had also hosted the approach and landing tests of the shuttle prototype Enterprise in 1977 and had tested the computers used for the shuttles' flight control systems in the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft, which also contributed to the solution of a dangerous pilot induced oscillation that occurred on the final approach and landing test.

                  In this clip Young and Crippen fly the orbiter Columbia to a picture-perfect, unpowered landing on the dry lakebed runway 23 at Edwards AFB, CA, after it's first orbital flight, which ended on April 14.


                  Quelle: NASA

                  Kommentar

                  Lädt...
                  X